United Nations


India: UN experts urge corrective action to protect human rights and end attacks against minorities in lead up to elections
(07. 03. 2024)

UPR India, 10 November 2022


(u.a. von)


  • In the last UPR cycle, India supported the recommendation to ratify the Convention Against Torture, Cruel, or Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) given by 31 countries, and the Indian Law Commission recommended the Government consider the possibility of ratifying UNCAT.  What steps have been taken to ratify this convention?
  • Several concerning trends in the press freedom space have been noted across the country and online.  Access Now found that India has the highest number of internet shutdowns globally.  Reporters Sans Frontiers ranked India 142 of 180 countries in its 2021 World Press Freedom Index.  In a similar vein, the Committee to Protect Journalists reported that India has the highest number of journalists killed in retribution for their work.  What steps are being considered by the government to reverse these trends, including ensuring freedom of expression both online and offline?
  • Many civil society groups have assessed that the Foreign Contribution Regulation Action (FCRA) inhibits civil society from conducting important work and is sometimes utilized to constrain the activities of civil society.  What steps does the government plan to take to ensure that FCRA is implemented transparently in cooperation with civil society?
  • The protections of the constitutional rights of members of religious minority groups have been challenged by discriminatory laws such as anti-conversion laws, marriage restrictions, and cow slaughter laws.  A law in one Indian state infringes on wearing religious garb in educational institutions.  In addition, we are concerned about acts that intimidate religious and ethnic minority communities, such as hate speech and the targeting of their homes and businesses.  What steps are being taken by the government to protect members of religious minority groups from discrimination?
  • We note the Government of India’s rollback of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act to promote accountability and justice.  We continue to have concerns about section 197 of the Indian Code of Criminal Procedure, which does not fully address accountability for security forces and prevents victims from accessing justice.  How does the government intend to proceed with further legal reforms and ensure Police Complaints Authorities (PCA) in all states take disciplinary action against officers found to be credibly complicit?
  • We are concerned by the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, National Security Act, Public Safety Act, and sections (124A, 499, and 500) of the Indian Penal Code as they have been applied to free speech advocates, activists, and faith leaders.  What steps are being taken by the government to ensure these acts comply with international human rights obligations and commitments?
  •  How does the government intend to prevent, track, prosecute, and punish crimes of sectarian violence, or threats of violence committed by officials, individuals, or groups against members of religious or social minority groups?
  • We urge the central and state governments to harmonize their mandates for, and implementation of, protection and compensation programs for trafficking victims, especially children, and ensure immediate access to care.  This includes training prosecutors and judges to increase the number of restitution orders for trafficking victims and eliminating the condition of a trafficking conviction as a prerequisite for bonded labor victim compensation.  What action is the Government of India taking to improve survivor access to restitution, and how are you ensuring trafficking victims are aware of available compensation mechanisms?




  • Does the Indian government consider to revise the Armed Forces (Special Powers Act) with a view to bringing it into compliance with obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and fighting impunity?
  • Will the Indian government consider reintroducing the Communal and Targeted Violence Bill of 2011?
  • What next steps towards the ratification of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment is the Government of India planning? How will it ensure domestic legislation defines torture in line with international standards?
  • How will the Indian government react on criticism on anti-conversion laws and undertake steps to review related laws to strengthen the right to freedom of religion?
  • What will the Indian government do to strengthen the implementation of existing legislation on child labour?
  • We welcome the Indian government’s engagement for the non-discriminatory delivery of public goods and services, including housing. How is the Indian government going to ensure that forced evictions are conducted in line with the UN Guiding Principles and Guidelines on Development-based Displacement and Evictions?


  • What steps is the Government of India taking to protect the rights and interests of minorities as enshrined in Articles 29 and 30 of India’s constituition?
  • What steps is the Government of India taking in addressing inequalities in the criminal justice system and reducing the scope for the Death penalty?
  • What steps is the Government of India taking to expedite the ratification of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and its Optional Protocol, and adopt robust domestic legislation to this effect?
  • What measures are the Government of India taking to raise awareness of childrens rights, in particular, in the online space?
  • What measures are the Government of India taking to protect journalists and the media from undue interference and harassment?

Source:  https://www.ohchr.org/en/hr-bodies/upr/in-index


India’s human rights record under scrutiny as NHRC prepares for renewal of accreditation with GANHRI SCA (The Leaflet, 08. 07. 2022)

India: UN experts say Jammu and Kashmir changes risk undermining minorities’ rights  (18. 02. 2021)

Three Special Rapporteurs of the United Nations have written to the Indian government regarding the crackdown on non-governmental organisation (NGO) Amnesty International India: ‘Stop attacking NGOs’: UN rapporteurs tell India over Amnesty probe (The Federal, 04. 01. 2021)

Bachelet dismayed at restrictions on human rights NGOs and arrests of activists in India (20 Oct 2020)

COVID-19: Urgent help for India’s forgotten migrant workers must follow Supreme Court ruling (04 June 2020)

COVID-19: UN human rights chief “distressed” over plight of India’s internal migrants, welcomes measures to limit impact (02 April 2020)


1. Konventionen

Völkerrechtlich verbindliche Abkommen und politische Erklärungen der Vereinten Nationen (aber auch anderer Institutionen) dienen Menschenrechtsorganisationen als Arbeitsbasis. Aktivistinnen und Aktivisten können sich auf diese Positionen berufen, wenn sie von ihren Regierungen Schutz vor Menschenrechtsverletzungen einfordern. Amnesty wendet sich regelmäßig an Internationale Organisationen und deren Mitgliedsstaaten und mahnt an, dass Abkommen auch tatsächlich in der Praxis umgesetzt werden.

Die internationale Staatengemeinschaft hat eine Reihe von Grundsatzerklärungen verabschiedet, die jedoch nicht rechtsverbindlich sind. Dazu zählen unter anderem
– die Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte (1948),
– die Erklärung über das Recht auf Entwicklung (1986),
– die Erklärung über den Schutz aller Personen vor zwangsweisem Verschwinden (1992) und
– das Recht der Völker auf Frieden (1984).

Im Gegensatz zu diesen Erklärungen sind Übereinkommen (Konventionen) rechtsverbindlich, sobald sie von den Vertragsstaaten ratifiziert wurden.

Zur Übersicht über die Konventionen und den Stand der Ratifikationen: United Nations Treaty Collection
Zur laufenden Weiterentwicklung der internationalen Abkommen: Codification and Progressive Development of International Law
Siehe auch hier: Menschenrechtsabkommen

2. Universal Periodic Review

Seit der Gründung des Menschenrechtsrats der Vereinten Nationen im Jahr 2006 (der die frühere UN-Menschrechtskommission ablöste) werden alle Staaten regelmäßig hinsichtlich ihrer Menschenrechtsbilanz überprüft. Zur ersten Gruppe von Staaten, die sich im Jahr 2008 dem Universal Periodic Review unterzogen, gehörte auch Indien. Dokumente und Statements:
National Report

Die Antworten der indischen Regierung auf die Empfehlungen der UPR Working Group von 2008 sind enthalten im National Report zum II. Universal Periodic Review of India, der im Mai 2012 stattfand

Amnesty International hat aus Anlass der Sitzung des UN-Menschenrechtsrats (27. Februar – 23. März 2012) ein Statement veröffentlicht, das sich besonders auf die Situation von Menschenrechtsverteidigern bezieht: Human rights defenders need effective protection (ASA20/005/2012/en).
Die Eingabe zum UPR im Mai/Juni 2012 stand unter dem Titel: Accountability, impunity and obstacles to access to justice ( India-UPR_2012_Amnesty_submission.pdf)

India UPR III, Mai 2017:

Amnesty International, Submission for the UPR April/May 2017: Impunity, discrimination and repression of dissent (September 2016)

Joint Stakeholders’ Report: Human Rights in India. Joint Stakeholder’s Report (Working Group on Human Rights in India and the UN, Dezember 2016)

India’s National Report: India’s National Report (Ministry of External Affairs, Jan 2017)

Empfehlungen und Reaktionen im Verfahren des UPR lassen sich gezielt je nach Land und Thema hier verfolgen: Database of UPR recommendations and voluntary pledges

3. Berichte und Statements, UN-Dokumente


Human Rights Council, 46th session, 22 February–19 March 2021

Countering Islamophobia/anti-Muslim hatred to eliminate discrimination and intolerance based on religion or belief. Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Ahmed Shaheed*  (13. 04. 2022)


India’s new Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2019: Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights: Jeremy Laurence (13. 12. 2019)

Bhopal 1984: Bhopal: Chemical industry must respect human rights (United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 27. 11. 2019)

UN rights experts urge India to end communications shutdown in Kashmir (22. 08. 2019)
Update of the Situation of Human Rights in Indian-Administered Kashmir and Pakistan-Administered Kashmir from May 2018 to April 2019  (UNHCHR, Juli 2019)

Reprisals for cooperation with the UN in the field of human rights: Secretary-General on intimidation and reprisals for cooperation with the UN in the field of human rights (Sept. 2018)

Kaschmir: Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Kashmir: Developments in the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir from June 2016 to April 2018, and General Human Rights Concerns in Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan  (Juni 2018)

31. 05. 2018
UN experts condemn deadly police response to protest against copper smelting plant in India, call for probe
24. 05. 2018
UN experts call on India to protect journalist Rana Ayyub from online hate campaign

Special Rapporteur on adequate housing: Report of the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context, on her mission to India (Jan 2017)

19. 10. 2016
Kaschmir: UN experts urge India to release rights activist in Kashmir (Washington Post, 19. 10. 2016); India must release Kashmiri human rights activist Khurram Parvez, U.N. experts say (Reuters, 19. 10. 2016)

17. 08. 2016
Kaschmir: Zeid urges India and Pakistan to grant independent observers access to Kashmir (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights)

18. 06. 2016
Statement von drei UN-Sonderberichterstattern zur Auslandsfinanzierung (FCRA) von NGOs: UN rights experts urge India to repeal law restricting NGO’s access to crucial foreign funding

22. 04. 2016
Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context Ms Leilani Farha: End-of-visit press statement, New Delhi

20. 04. 2016
UN-Sonderberichterstatter Maina Kiai zur Auslandsfinanzierung von NGOs (FCRA): ANALYSIS ON INTERNATIONAL LAW,STANDARDS AND PRINCIPLES

21. 03. 2016
UN-Sonderberichterstatterin Rita Izsák zur Kasten-Diskriminierung: Caste systems violate human rights of millions worldwide – new UN expert report

Mai 2013
UN Special Rapporteur on safe drinking water and sanitation: Continued plight of the ‘untouchables’ (United Nations, Mai 2013)

April/Mai 2013
UN-Sonderberichterstatterin über Gewalt gegen Frauen
Special Rapporteur on Violence against women, its causes and consequences finalises country mission to India (UN, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 01. 05. 2013)
Violence against women: UN expert launches visit to assess the situation in India (UN, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 17. 04. 2013)

UN + Government of India: India UNDAF. United Nations Development Action Framework 2013-2017

März 2012 (Besuch) – April 2013 (Bericht)
Vom 19. bis zum 30. März 2012 besuchte der UN-Sonderberichtserstatter über außergerichtliche, summarische oder willkürliche Hinrichtungen, Christof Heyns Indien, um eine erste fact-finding mission durchzuführen: first official mission by UN rapporteur on summary or arbitrary executions
Im April 2013 legte er der UN-Vollversammlung seinen Bericht vor: Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions

Januar 2011 (Besuch) – Februar 2012 (Bericht)
Vom 10. bis 21. Januar reiste Margaret Sekaggya, UN-Sonderberichterstatterin für die Situation von Menschenrechtsverteidigern, durch Indien. Am Ende ihrer Reise, die sie durch die Bundesstaaten Orissa, Westbengalen, Gujarat, Assam sowie Jammu und Kaschmir führte, gab sie in New Delhi das folgende Statement ab: Statement of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Margaret Sekaggya, as she concludes her visit to India
Im Februar 2012 legte sie ihren Bericht vor: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Margaret Sekaggya – Addendum – Mission to India (10–21 January 2011)

Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD): Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination – INDIA (May 2007)

UN Human Rights Country Page – India

12. März 2024